Cecilius ("Cecil") Calvert
The Town of Baltimore was founded in 1729, it's bounderies fully within Baltimore County which was establised in 1659. Both were named for the second Lord Baltimore, Cecilius ("Cecil") Calvert, the first Proprietor and Proprietary Governor of the Province of Maryland. He received the title "Baron of Baltimore" on the death of his father, George Calvert, who was given the title by King James I of England. There is a well know city in Cork County Ireland that is called Baltimore and some sources incorrectly assume that George Calvert was the owner, but records show he had no relation to that land. He did however own land in Langford County Ireland that was probably also called Baltimore at the time. The name itself is an Anglicized version of the Gaelic phrase "Baile an Tí Mhóir" which translates to "Town of the Big House". It is not clear if George Calvert's land just coincidently was named with the same Irish term, or if he knew of the city in Cork and just liked the name.
Because the land in the new world was given to him, historians have long recognized George Calvert as the founder of Maryland, in spirit if not in fact. But it was his son Cecil who actually established and managed the New World colony. At a time of religious persecution in England, Cecil, a Catholic like his father, promoted religous tolerance. Maryland began officially as a Catholic colony and soon became a haven for persecuted Catholics from all over Europe.
Baltimore early success was mostly due to growing and exporting tobacco products. It's strategic loaction as a proteted harbour led to increased import/export and by 1747 the shipping interests had grown to a whopping 7 vessels a year! As the are grew, other industries would come to prominance.
Religion continued to play a large part in Baltimores growth through the later half of the 16th century with America's first Methodist, general meeting of the Quakers, Catholic diocese, Catholic Bishop, and first Roman Catholic seminary. Industrail growth begn when the first sugar refinery in America opened in 1796.
In 1789 a group of physicians formed the Medical Society of Baltimore, and in 1803 a charter was approved to build City College using money from a lottery. These events forshadow the importance of the medical profession, educational system, and lottery in modern Baltimore.
Meanwhile no growing city can be lacking in appreciation of the arts. In 1812, Rembrandt Peale moved to Baltimore and began building a museum and gallery of fine arts which still stands today. He further advanced Baltimore modernization by installing the first gas streetlamp in America, right outside of the museum. It was fed with Gas from Peale's "Gas Light Company of Baltimore".
Industry grew as America's first canning factory was built in Baltimore in 1820 whose population had grown to 62,738. In 1827, the first railroad company, (Baltimore & Ohio Railroad) was organized and stocks sold. The Baltimore and Susquehanna Railroad followed the enxt year.
Besides Baltimore City and Baltimore County, many of the surrounding Maryland counties have names honoring the Calvert family. There is Calvert Co., Cecil Co., Charles Co.(for Cecil's son the 3rd Lord Baltimore), Anne Arundell Co.(for Cecil's wife) and Frederick County(for Cecil's great-great grandson the 6th and last Lord Baltimore).